python 的标准库模块glob使用教程,主要为glob.glob()使用与glob.iglob()使用

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1 glob模块介绍

globpython的标准库模块,只要安装python就可以使用该模块。glob模块主要用来查找目录文件,可以使用*、?、[]这三种通配符对路径中的文件进行匹配。

  • *:代表0个或多个字符
  • ?:代表一个字符
  • []:匹配指定范围内的字符,如[0-9]匹配数字

Unix样式路径名模式扩展

2 glob模块的具体使用

2.1 查看glob模块有哪些方法属性

>>> dir(glob)
['__all__', '__builtins__', '__cached__', '__doc__', '__file__', '__loader__', 
'__name__', '__package__', '__spec__', '_glob0', '_glob1', '_glob2', '_iglob', 
'_ishidden', '_isrecursive', '_iterdir', '_rlistdir', 'escape', 'fnmatch', 
'glob', 'glob0', 'glob1', 'has_magic', 'iglob', 'magic_check', 
'magic_check_bytes', 'os', 're']
>>>

glob模块常用的两个方法有:glob.glob() 和 glob.iglob,下面详细介绍

2.2 glob.glob(pathname, *, recursive=False)函数的使用

2.2.1 函数glob.glob()定义:

def glob(pathname, *, recursive=False):
    """Return a list of paths matching a pathname pattern.

    The pattern may contain simple shell-style wildcards a la
    fnmatch. However, unlike fnmatch, filenames starting with a
    dot are special cases that are not matched by '*' and '?'
    patterns.

    If recursive is true, the pattern '**' will match any files and
    zero or more directories and subdirectories.
    """
    return list(iglob(pathname, recursive=recursive))

def iglob(pathname, *, recursive=False):
    """Return an iterator which yields the paths matching a pathname pattern.

    The pattern may contain simple shell-style wildcards a la
    fnmatch. However, unlike fnmatch, filenames starting with a
    dot are special cases that are not matched by '*' and '?'
    patterns.

    If recursive is true, the pattern '**' will match any files and
    zero or more directories and subdirectories.
    """
    it = _iglob(pathname, recursive, False)
    if recursive and _isrecursive(pathname):
        s = next(it)  # skip empty string
        assert not s
    return it

2.2.2 glob.glob()函数的参数和返回值

  • def glob(pathname, *, recursive=False):
    • pathname:该参数是要匹配的路径
    • recursive:如果是true就会递归的去匹配符合的文件路径,默认是False
  • 返回匹配到的路径列表

2.2.3 glob.glob()函数使用实例

先给出测试使用的目录结构:

test_dir/
├── a1.txt
├── a2.txt
├── a3.py
├── sub_dir1
│   ├── b1.txt
│   ├── b2.py
│   └── b3.py
└── sub_dir2
    ├── c1.txt
    ├── c2.py
    └── c3.txt

1、返回目录的路径列表

>>> path_list1 = glob.glob('./test_dir/')
>>> path_list
['./test_dir/']

2、匹配'./test_dir/*路径下的所有目录和文件,并返回路径列表

>>> path_list2 = glob.glob('./test_dir/*')
>>> path_list2
['./test_dir/a3.py', './test_dir/a2.txt', './test_dir/sub_dir1', './test_dir/sub_dir2', './test_dir/a1.txt']

3、匹配./test_dir/路径下含有的所有.py文件不递归

>>> path_list3 = glob.glob('./test_dir/*.py')
>>> path_list3
['./test_dir/a3.py']
>>> path_list4 = glob.glob('./test_dir/*/*.py')
>>> path_list4
['./test_dir/sub_dir1/b2.py', './test_dir/sub_dir1/b3.py', './test_dir/sub_dir2/c2.py']

4、递归的匹配./test_dir/**路径下的所有目录和文件,并返回路径列表

>>> path_list5 = glob.glob('./test_dir/**', recursive=True)
>>> path_list5
['./test_dir/', './test_dir/a3.py', './test_dir/a2.txt', './test_dir/sub_dir1', './test_dir/sub_dir1/b2.py', './test_dir/sub_dir1/b3.py', './test_dir/sub_dir1/b1.txt', './test_dir/sub_dir2', './test_dir/sub_dir2/c3.txt', './test_dir/sub_dir2/c1.txt', './test_dir/sub_dir2/c2.py', './test_dir/a1.txt']
>>> path_list6 = glob.glob('./test_dir/**/*.py', recursive=True)
>>> path_list6
['./test_dir/a3.py', './test_dir/sub_dir1/b2.py', './test_dir/sub_dir1/b3.py', './test_dir/sub_dir2/c2.py']

注意:

如果要对某个路径下进行递归,一定要在后面加两个*

>>> path_list = glob.glob('./test_dir/', recursive=True)
>>> path_list
['./test_dir/']

2.3 glob.iglob(pathname, recursive=False)函数的使用

2.3.1 glob.iglob()函数的定义

def iglob(pathname, *, recursive=False):
    """Return an iterator which yields the paths matching a pathname pattern.

    The pattern may contain simple shell-style wildcards a la
    fnmatch. However, unlike fnmatch, filenames starting with a
    dot are special cases that are not matched by '*' and '?'
    patterns.

    If recursive is true, the pattern '**' will match any files and
    zero or more directories and subdirectories.
    """
    it = _iglob(pathname, recursive, False)
    if recursive and _isrecursive(pathname):
        s = next(it)  # skip empty string
        assert not s
    return it

2.3.2 glob.iglob()函数的参数

  • glob.iglob参数glob.glob()一样
  • def iglob(pathname, *, recursive=False):
    • pathname:该参数是要匹配的路径
    • recursive:如果是true就会递归的去匹配符合的文件路径,默认是False
  • 返回一个迭代器,遍历该迭代器的结果与使用相同参数调用glob()的返回结果一致

2.3.3 glob.iglob()函数的使用实例

先给出测试使用的目录结构:

test_dir/
├── a1.txt
├── a2.txt
├── a3.py
├── sub_dir1
│   ├── b1.txt
│   ├── b2.py
│   └── b3.py
└── sub_dir2
    ├── c1.txt
    ├── c2.py
    └── c3.txt

正常glob.glob()返回路径列表

>>> path_list4 = glob.glob('./test_dir/*/*.py')
>>> path_list4
['./test_dir/sub_dir1/b2.py', './test_dir/sub_dir1/b3.py', './test_dir/sub_dir2/c2.py']

现在,使用:glob.iglob()

>>> file_path_iter = glob.iglob('./test_dir/*')
>>> print(type(file))
<class 'generator'>
>>> for file_path in file_path_iter:
...     print(file_path)
...
./test_dir/a3.py
./test_dir/a2.txt
./test_dir/sub_dir1
./test_dir/sub_dir2
./test_dir/a1.txt
>>>

2.4 其他通配符*、?、[]实例

>>> import glob
>>> glob.glob('./[0-9].*')
['./1.gif', './2.txt']
>>> glob.glob('*.gif')
['1.gif', 'card.gif']
>>> glob.glob('?.gif')
['1.gif']
>>> glob.glob('**/*.txt', recursive=True)
['2.txt', 'sub/3.txt']
>>> glob.glob('./**/', recursive=True)
['./', './sub/']

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